Team Paradigm Tuesday, 17 March 2020

Global Warming and India

The average global temperature has increased by about 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit (0.8 degrees Celsius) over the past 100 years, United States and Alaska, 2016 was the second-warmest year on record According to Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology South Asia, particularly India, Pakistan and China are hotspots in a warming world.

Global warming is expected to have far-reaching, long-lasting and, in many cases, devastating consequences for planet Earth. Global warming, the gradual heating of Earth's surface, oceans and atmosphere, is caused by human activity, primarily the burning of fossil fuels that pump carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.

Despite political controversy about climate change, a major report released by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stated that scientists are more certain than ever of the link between human activities and global warming. More than 197 international scientific organizations agree that global warming is real and has been caused by human action.

Already, global warming is having a measurable effect on the planet. One of the most immediate and obvious effects of global warming is the increase in temperatures around the world. The average global temperature has increased by about 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit (0.8 degrees Celsius) over the past 100 years, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

Since record keeping began in 1895, the hottest year on record worldwide was 2016, according to NOAA and NASA data. That year Earth's surface temperature was 1.78 degrees F (0.99 degrees C) warmer than the average across the entire 20th century. Before 2016, 2015 was the warmest year on record, globally. And before 2015? Yep, 2014. In fact, 16 of the 17 warmest years on record have happened since 2001, according to NASA.

For the contiguous United States and Alaska, 2016 was the second-warmest year on record and the 20th consecutive year that the annual average surface temperature exceeded the 122-year average since record keeping began, according to NOAA. Another effect of Global Warming is extreme change in weather all around the world. Global warming may also lead to extreme weather other than cold or heat extremes. Adam Sobel, Author of the “Storm Surge: Hurricane Sandy, Our Changing Climate, and Extreme Weather of the Past and Future" said that, “And even if they become less frequent globally, hurricanes could still become more frequent in some particular areas.”

Global Warming is not only taking toll in US but also all over the world. According to UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), India will be among the worst hit countries that may face wrath of calamities like floods and heat waves, and reduced GDP.

Human activities have already raised the global temperature by one degree centigrade compared to the pre-industrial levels. The global warming is now likely to reach 1.5 degree between 2030 and 2052 if it continues to rise at the current rate, the Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 degree C has warned. In terms of impacts of global warming, the report notes that the world is already witnessing the consequences of 1 degree global warming in the form of extreme weather events, rising sea levels and diminishing Arctic sea ice. There will be long-lasting or irreversible changes like the loss of some ecosystems if the temperature rises further. Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology who was one of the reviewers of the special report, said South Asia, particularly India, Pakistan and China are hotspots in a warming world. The impacts will include intensified droughts and water stress, heatwaves, habitat degradation, and reduced crop yields. Floods of all kinds - riverine floods, those due to snow melt and coastal flooding due to sea level rise - are increasing, and are projected to increase further. More than 50 million people in India would be directly affected by sea level rise and associated coastal flooding the report said. Other weather events will also change in frequency and intensity. frequency of cyclones over the Arabian Sea their number is a decreasing in the Bay of Bengal. Another impact may be the shortage of fish-based protein in the Indian Ocean due to rapid degradation of key ecosystems such as coral reefs, sea grass and mangroves and factors like pollution, overfishing, unsustainable coastal development. Pollution in India is rising as witnessed in Delhi air pollution case. If situation continues to worsen people in all over the country will have to carry the oxygen mask with them.

To limit this increasing pollution in various sectors countries will have to change policies in sectors like land, energy, industry, buildings, transport, and urban development. If we don’t take big measures toward Global Warming, it will drastically affect world economy and hence consequences will be worst.

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